Physics Formulas Optics / Cheatsheet

Physics Formulas Optics/Cheat sheet

In concave mirrors;

· Rays coming parallel to the principal axis pass from the focal point

· Rays coming from the focal point travel parallel to the principal axis

· Ray coming from the center of curvature turn back on itself

· Ray hits the mirror at vertex, it reflects with the same angle it does with principal axis

· If the object is placed between focal point and the vertex then image is virtual, behind the mirror, erect and larger than the object. In other conditions, image is real and inverted.

In convex mirrors;

  • Light rays follow the same path given above for concave mirrors.
  • Image of the object is always located between focal point and vertex, behind the mirror, and it is virtual and magnified in size.

Mirror Equations


mirror equations





Speed of light;

refractive index


Snell’s Law;

law of refraction





Critical Angle;

critical angle





Apparent Depth;

apparent depth equation




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