cold imageAll matters are formed from atoms and molecules. In microscopic view we see that all particles in a matter are in random motion, they are vibrating, colliding randomly. We learned in previous sections that particle has kinetic energy if it moves. Thus, in an object all particles have kinetic energies because of their random motions. Temperature is the quantity which is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the atoms of matter. Be careful, it is not energy, it just show the quantity of average kinetic energy of one atom or one molecule. hot imageIn daily life we use some terms like hot, cold or warm. All these terms are used with respect to another reference matter. For example, you say that a glass of boiling water is hotter than the ice cream. Be careful, ice cream is our reference matter.

We measure temperature of matters with a device called thermometer. There are three types of thermometer, Celsius Thermometer, Fahrenheit Thermometer and Kelvin Thermometer. Look at the given picture to see how we scale thermometers.

thermometer types



In Celsius thermometer, lower fixed point is 0 ºC and upper fixed point is 100 ºC, in Fahrenheit thermometer lower fixed point is determined as 32 ºF and upper fixed point as 212 ºF and finally, lower fixed point of Kelvin thermometer is 273 ºK and upper fixed point is 373 ºK. These temperatures are determined with considering the freezing point and boiling point of water.

We can convert the measurements of Celsius to Kelvin or Fahrenheit to Kelvin, Celsius by using following equations.

thermometer types convertion

Example: Find the values of 30 ºC in Fahrenheit and Kelvin thermometers.

thermometer types example






















Heat Temperature and Thermal Expansion Exams and Solutions


273 º kelvin a ºC
show celcius and farenheit
picture of a thermometer showing fahrenheit
thermometer kelvin, celsius and fahrenheit
types of thermometer+ kelvin
212º kelvin
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thermometer showing boiling point picture
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thermometer for -210 º temperatures
ºC celsius
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thermometer showing celcius farenheit
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types of thermometers thermal expansion
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types of thermometers that use thermal expansion to display temperature
three types of thermometers that use thermal expansion
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picture of thermometer showing that temperature of ice is 0
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making thermometers, lower fixed point, pictures
lower fixed point scale thermometer
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pictures of thermometer in celsius
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temperature to celsius photos
celsius thermometer showing boiling point picture
three types of Thermometer; Centigrade, Kelvin and Fahrenheit
celsius kelvin fahrenheit
types of thermometers that use thermal expansion
Picture of thermometer showing temperature